PREVELENCE OF HEPATITIS B AND HEPATITIS C INFECTION AMONG PATIENTS UNDERGOING DIALYSIS
Keywords:Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hemodialysis
The prevalence rate of Hepatitis C is higher among patients who undergoes hemodialysis than general population. Due to frequent contact with blood transfusion patients with hemodialysis are very prone to Hepatitis C infection.Both Hepatitis B and C virus infection is a lead cause of mortality and morbidity among patients who are on hemodialysis. Still, very little research has focused on the morbidity measures of these serious disorders in low and middle income countries like India.
Aims & objectives
This study is conducted to investigate prevalence of Hepatitis C infection in patient who undergoes hemodialysis. The study aims to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections among hemodialysis patients in the civil hospital of Gandhinagar.
Material & methods
A retrospective study was carried out from September 2020 to September 2021 in General hospital Gandhinagar with the use of ELISA kit by detecting anti-HCV antibody and Hipatitis B surface antigen from serum sample.. Total 100 sample collected from hemodialysis unit in General hospital Gandhinagar ..
Observation and results
This study was done in GMERS Medical College and General hospital Gandhinagar with 100 samples of hemodialysis patient from September 2020 to September 2021.Approach used in this study is retrospective. For diagnosis of HCV infection ELISA is used. Out of 100 patients, 21 patients were positive and 79 patients were negative for Hepatitis C and hepatitis as well as both.
Risk of hepatitis infection is more associated with patients with chronic renal failure due to high frequency of transfusion of blood and blood products and extracorporeal circulation during hemodialysis. For prevention of spread of hepatitis infection among patients with hemodialysis, dialysis unit has to use proper universal precautions, has to properly maintain the machines of dialysis, and also has to follow proper disposal of material used in the unit. So that chances of getting cross infection of hepatitis become less.
The prevalence of HCV was 12% among hemodialysis patients which is intermediate comparing to other study done in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala showing prevalence of 23% and 8%.Strict adherence to universal precautions to control infection practices will remain key to prevent transmission of hepatitis c and also other infections that can spread through parenteral route.In this study result shows that prevalence of hepatitis B and C infection in hemodialysis patients is 7% and 12%, respectively. While both hepatitis B and C positive cases are only 2%. Since hepatitis B and C share a common mode of transmission, we searched for co-infection with HBV and HCV among the patients, as seen in patients, 14 male and 7 female. Research studies on prevalence of hepatitis B and C co-infection in hemolysis are very rare. So the study suggested to conduct more research on this topic to prevent further prevalence of HCV and HBV.
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