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title:Assessment of the profile of psychiatric manifestations in cannabis users: A cross sectional study

Author:Indrajeet Sharma, Tulika Jha, Purshottam K. Kaundal

Keywords:Cannabis, Bipolar affective disorder, Psychiatric comorbidity

Type:Original Article

Abstract:Background: Cannabis is the world’s most commonly used illicit drug, with approximately 200 to 300 million regular users. It occupies fourth place in worldwide popularity among psychoactive drugs, after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. Nowadays, cannabis is widely used by young people and, the prevalence of lifetime use of cannabis by young adults has increased in many developed countries over the past several decades. Methods: It was a one year cross-sectional observational study. The study included 60 patients, who had been taking cannabis for at least previous six months with a frequency of minimum 20 days/month. The eligible patients fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria and giving written informed consent were enrolled in the study. Results: Most common co-morbid psychiatric disorders were bipolar affective disorders, current manic episode with or without psychotic features (25.0%). Second most common co-morbid disorder was cannabis induced psychosis which was present in thirteen patients (21.7%). Seven patients (11.7%) had acute and transient psychosis; six patients (10.0%) were diagnosed as schizophrenia, whereas three patients (5.0%) had Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified (NOS). Anxiety disorder and depressive disorder accounted for 10% and 3.4% of comorbidity, respectively. Two patients (3.3%) were having cannabis dependence syndrome with withdrawal state and three patients (5.0%) were having cannabis dependence syndrome only without any associated psychiatric comorbidity. Conclusion: Among the various psychiatric disorders, bipolar affective disorder, current episode mania with or without psychotic features was the most prevalent disorder.Most of cannabis users seeking treatment suffer from various psychiatric comorbid disorders particularly psychotic disorders (38.4%).

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