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title:Clinical examination and foot pressure analysis of diabetic foot: Prospective analytical study in Indian diabetic patients

Author:Harshanand J Popalwar, Anil Kumar Gaur, Badrinath D Athani, Jayasree Ramesh

Keywords:clinical examination of foot, diabetic neuropathy, foot pressure analysis.

Type:Original Article

Abstract:Aim: Clinical examination of diabetic foot to find out its pathological Complications and analysis of plantar foot pressure of diabetic foot patients in Indian population. Method: This was prospective analytical study in Indian diabetic patients. 102 patients were evaluated through clinical, vascular, neurological and plantar foot pressure assessment. Results: 35% patients developed diabetic neuropathy. ABI- 62% patients had vascular complication. On foot examination 51% patients had nail changes, 32% had foot lesion and 52% had foot deformity. 7.8% had Charcot joint arthropathy, 5.8% had interdigital infection, 38.2 % had restricted joint mobility of first MTP joint. 20% had past history of foot ulceration; out of which 71% had high peak pressure point areas at healed ulcer area. High pressure values were seen in healed ulcer group patients. Average value of peak foot pressure in dynamic mode is- left foot 156.41Kpa (min 105 Kpa- max 346 Kpa) and right foot is 153.05 Kpa (min 100Kpa-max 245Kpa). Maximum values of peak pressure were seen at abnormal pressure point areas such as 4-5th metatarsal heads, lateral aspect of foot and middle of arch. Conclusion: Meticulous clinical examination can easily identify diabetic neuropathy and related pathological complications of diabetic foot. This shall help for early diagnosis and prevention of diabetic foot complications. Foot pressure analysis can be useful tool to screen patients of diabetic foot for abnormal high pressure point areas and can predict future risk of ulceration due to high foot pressure. This study states findings in Indian diabetic patients.

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